A 1964 presidencial campaign (Johnson) TV ad. The ad exagerates the likelyhood and potencial effects of a nuclear war.
The Mural: in the center, Montezuma and Cortes shaking hands, behind them the Main Pyramid, below them a priest burning codexes. On the right, the trees of life and death; and walking towards the mountains the native americans during the trail of tears. Above, the Sun, Mars, and a comet. Representing the conquest of Tenochtitlan, the native american nations, and space.
After the Spaniards and the Tlaxcaltecas joined forces to arrive to Tenochtitlan with allies, on the way, they found the Choultecas; which the Tlaxcaltecas defeated easily and with no mercy. The Spanish were very impressed —and maybe even frightened by this demonstration of power and will. Cortez continued his way through the now known “Paso de Cortez”, from between the two volcanoes, and an unprecedented view of the great city of Tenochtitlan.
By then, Montecozuma knew about the Spanish’ arrival, and ordered his capixtles -his most loyal warriors- to not attack them upon the arrival. Cortez entered the city, and went directly into the Axacayatl palace; which was the Huey Tlatoani’s home. This was very controversial, since it was forbidden for everyone except his self, family, and servants.
As the two leaders met, a very interesting episode of history took place. The two cultures finally met in good terms, and Cortez and Montecozuma shared their culture. One of the first interactions was when the Spanish leader imposed his christian cross, for the other one to kiss it; because of an altered translation by Maletzin, this wasn’t seen as an offense, and the Tlatoani complied.
For four months, Cortez and his soldiers live in the palace, him observing and learning everything he can about the city. Since his first arrival, he is impressed by the magnitude and organization of the city and the army, as well as the soldier´s imposing appearance. All of this observation, of course, to help his plans on conquest.
By this time, the people of the city are sick of these strangers living among them, especially after some attacks by individual soldiers to steal gold from Aztec citizens. In Jan 1520, Diego Velazquez plans the fourth expedition to Mexico, which objective is only to find, capture and kill Cortez for high treason. The expedition was led by Panfilo de Narvaez. Narvaez arrives with 19 ships, 3000 Spaniards, 200 Jamaicans, and 300 horses and weaponry. He goes with the Totonacas when he arrives to La Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz, to speak to the teutli. As they talk, the Capixtle Cuauhlpopoca Executes a very well planned attack against the Totonacas, and kills the teutli. Narvaez and most of his men escape and survive.
Cortez is informed of the destruction of the Totonaca, and Narvaez’ plans. To get rid of him, he plans to bribe his men, and sabotage his weapons; he sends Critobal de Olid and Juan de Avilez to carry out these plans. They are successful, and are able to capture Narvez, and Cortez goes to La Villa Rica to torture Narvaez and “give him back” to Diego Velazquez (without eyes). He keeps all of his men, and heads back to the valley of Mexico. At the same time, they are choosing a new Huey Tlatoani, named Cuitlahuac, with his nephew as master of arms.
Cortez arrives confident to the main temple, little did he know that the Aztec army awaited him, and fought the Spanish out of the city. They were not ready to attack, and carryied heavy loads; Cortes lost most of his army, and came what is now known as “La Noche Triste”. The Alliance he had with the tlaxcaltecas gave him shelter for him and the people that had survived. When in Tlaxcala, he sends out men for weapons, ammunition and men from surrounding islands, with tlaxcalan money.
Cuitlahuac dies of smallpox, Cuauhtemoc becomes the new Huey Tlatoani, in a time of extreme crisis, with no water supply, and 80% of his people soon-to-be gone from smallpox, and most of his army gone. He tries to ally with tribute-paying emipres. He is neglected help violently.
Cortez already has tlaxcalan warriors and Aztec enemies, and more men arriving (4000 men, with boats and ammunition). He plans the attack from the south of the city. He wins allies -thousands of them- offering freedom from the Aztec. When he arrives, he surrounds the city with different generals posted in different sides of the city. The siege is strong, and completely cuts off the city’s supplies. At this moment, Cortez writes the third “Carta de Relación”, describing the final episode of the taking of Tenochtitlan.
Cuauhtemoc orders a nocturne attack -breaking with used Aztec strategy- and captures 800 spanish. They take their skin, put it in the main temple, painting it completely in red, and crush their hearts on the ground. This provokes an unlimited hatred, both sides plan to fight recklessly.
In May 1521, the Spanish finally enter the city, killing everyone, and capture Cuauhtemoc. They torture him, asking about inexistent treasures. After the torture, Cuauhtemoc plead for his heart to be removed and offered to the Gods. Cortez denied the petition, and sends him to Tabasco to be executed. Tenochtitlan had now officially been destroyed.
I believe this dark episode in Mexican history is not quite the greatest. If you look back to the events occurred, you will not find a whole lot of things that will make either side proud nor flattered. When Cortez first stepped on Mexican coasts, you could smell the end was near, Moctezuma knew it as well. Cortez was a well straight traitor since he first met the Aztec empire, he disguised his intentions with kindness when a brutal plan was behind it. When Aztecs gave them shelter it was simply not right for Spanish soldiers to be mugging citizens for gold they justly earned.
I believe the Aztecs made the right choice by expelling them out of the city by force, they anticipated a tragedy. The way Cortez took Tenochtitlan, I believe was not in a fair nor honorable manner. He fought with more men and played dirty as a whole, he made sure in his strategy that more Tlaxcaltecas died instead of his own men. He manipulated the people in the region only to fight against each other using false promises, and made sure most of them died. Maybe his strategy was not fair, but we have to face it, that´s the way people behave in war and the way it is as a whole. Yet I also believe that the Aztecs fought more honorably and fell with their faces burned by the streaming sun, the Spanish instead used no kind of proper philosophy. It is a shame that a conflict such as this one ended up destroying all of the city and killing all of its natives as well. No legacy to be found or left.
What are the issues in Earth that drive the need for space colonization?
For many years, space colonization has been a theme of concearn in many aspects. The idea itself came from science fiction, crazy ideas about an unreachable future. As most science fiction, it actually came a serious theme of discussion in scientific circles around the world, and in different sciences.
The idea of space colonization is not new, but now it is something we should be actually concearned about, and start generating ideas for. Here are some examples of problems for which space colonization could be an answer for:
Overpopulation: This is one of the main points when talking about this subject, for several reasons; overpopulation is a whole subject on its own, but
generates itself a number of other concearns. Anything that is overpopulated (at any level) has issues with security, resources, government, health, etc. —let it be a building, a city, a country, or the Roman Empire…—. Evidently, any of these problems could take us back to the middle ages, comparable even to a post-apocalyptic scenario, or even be fatal. Communications would be lost, and so on.
As humans, we are using the Earth’s resources all the time. This supply, being either renewable or non-renewable, is limited. In addition, the consuming of resources occurrs at an increasing rate —about 10% a year; for example, steel, one of the most recycled metals in the world comes is mostly iron, which will finish within 64 years (according to the Worldwatch Institute), which would mean a crisis in one of the most important industries in the world, and one of China’s greatest imports (iron) and exports (steel) materials, gravely affecting economy globally. To solve this, mining in asteroids could give us a sufficient supply of several metals, and a surplus of iron and zinc. Another issue is energy, with fossil fuels running out quickly, and exploration being more expensive every day. In the close future, we could achieve atomic fussion (the way stars generate their energy), having a huge source of Helium 3 just above our heads: the Moon. Putting away all the discouraging cons, He3 mining in the moon would be a hugely effective and profitable energy source once the initial investment is done; the fussion process could be done either up there or here on Earth, and the Moons’s weak gravity would allow for easy exporting of either concentrated He3 packs, or another type of stored energy. In addition, usable iron and oxygen are a byproduct of He3 extraction.
The original poem by Desportes vividly describes in all aspects a tyrant leader, describing both his physical and ruling qualities. He focuses mostly on his eyes, hair, wit, and hands, all in a rhetoric language of course.
Objective: Write a poem describing Hernan Cortes (which expresses relation to conquest in general and Mexican history as well) from perspective of the Aztec leader. It will follow the style of Desportes and structure of the original poem. Included underneath the first poem, you will find another one as if written by the conqueror itself, but this one not necessarily following the style nor structure of the poem by Desportes. Roles were inverted on purpose so the poem following the style of Desportes comes from the point of view of the victim instead of the conqueror, and the poem not following his style comes from the conqueror. Both show the characters in fragile times when they are feeling vulnerable. The Aztec leader observing how Cortes slowly takes his kingdom, and Cortes when he has just been defeated and sits at “El Arbol de la Noche Triste’’. Inverted translocation.